Courses that will be offered every year;

General Biology I (101) and Lab (107)
General Biology II (102) and Lab (108)_XPL
Exploring Careers in Biology (199)
Statistics of Biological Research (283)
Molecular Biology (305) and Lab (306)
Cell Biology (334) and Lab (335)
Evolution (310)
General Ecology I (351) and Lab (353)
Animal Behavior (379)
Neurobiology I: cell & molecular  (344)
Advanced A&P I (300) and Lab (302)
Developmental Botany (360)
PPBR (390) and Lab (391)
Internship in Biology (398)
Co-Op in Biology (498)
Independent Research in Biology (491)
Independent Research in Biology (492)
Biology Honor’s Thesis (495)
Biology Honor’s Thesis (496)


General Biology I (101) and Lab (107)_XPL
General Biology II (102) and Lab (108)
Statistics of Biological Research (283)
Genetics (307) and Lab (308)
General Microbiology (330) and Lab (331)
Neurobiology II: systems & behavior (345)
Advanced A&P II (301) and Lab (303)
General Physiology (341) and Lab (342)
Community Ecology (394)
Pathophysiology (260)
Applied Ecology (354) and Lab (355)
Plant Physiology (366) and Lab (367)
PPBR (390) and Lab (391)
Internship in Biology (398)
Co-Op in Biology (498)
Independent Research in Biology (491)
Independent Research in Biology (492)
Biology Honor’s Thesis (495)
Biology Honor’s Thesis (496)


Course number Course name Credits Prerequisites Corequisite
101 General Biology I 3    
102 General Biology II 3 50:120:101,107  
103 Biology of Cancer 3    
104 Experiential Learning Lab 0    
105 The Facts of Life 3    
106 Human Reproduction and Development 3    
107 General Biology I Lab 1   50:120:101
108 General Biology II Lab 1 50:120:101,107 50:120:102
110 Biology of Disease 3    
111 General Biology I Recitation 1   101
112 General Biology II Recitation 1 50:120:101,107,111 102
127 Principles of Biology  3    
130 Computers in Biology 3    
199 Exploring Careers in Biology  1    
201 Basic Botany 3    
202 Understanding Environmental Problems 3    
203 Elements of Ecology 3    
211 Microbiology and Its Applications 3 50:120:127, 253; 50:160:103  
212 Microbiology and Its Applications Lab 1   50:120:211
222 Computers in Biology 3 50:120:101,102; 50:160:115,116; 50:640:121 or 130  
231 Clinical Aspects of Human Genetics 3 50:120:101 or 127  
253 Basic Anatomy and Physiology I 3 50:120:101 or 127, and 50:160:103 or 107 50:120:255
254 Basic Anatomy and Physiology II 3 50:120:127 or 101, and 50:120:253, and 50:160:103 or 107 50:120:256
255 Basic Anatomy and Physiology I Lab 1   50:120:253
256 Basic Anatomy and Physiology II Lab 1   50:120:254
260 Pathophysiology 3 50:120:253,254  
283 Statistics for Biological Research 3 50:120:101,102; 50:640:121  
300 Advanced Anatomy and Physiology I 3 50:120:101 and 50:160:115,116 50:120:302
301 Advanced Anatomy and Physiology II 3 50:120:300; 50:120:101; 50:160:115,116 50:120:303
302 Advanced Anatomy and Physiology I Lab  1 50:120:101 and 50:160:115,116  
303 Advanced Anatomy and Physiology II Lab 1 50:120:300; 50:120:101; 50:160:115,116  
305 Molecular Biology  3 50:120:283; 50:160:335, 336  
306 Molecular Biology Lab 1   50:120:305
307 Genetics 3 50:120:283; 50:160:335, 336  
308 Genetics Lab 1   50:120:307
309 Experimental Genetics 2    
310 Evolution 3 50:120:101,102,283  
311 Human Genetics 3 50:120:307  
312 Molecular Evolution 3 50:120:310  
328 Forensic Methods and Techniques 3 50:120:101,102  
329 Forensics Methods and Techniques Lab 1   50:120:328
330 General Microbiology 3 50:120:101,102,283  
331 General Microbiology Lab I 1   50:120:330
333 Advanced Microbiology 3 50: 283, 330  
334 Cell Biology 3 50:120:283; 50:160:335, 336  
335 Cell Biology Lab 1   50:120:334
338 Immunology and Serology 3 50:120:101,102  
339 Immunology and Serology Lab 1   50:120:338
341 General Physiology 3 50:120:101,102,283  
342 General Physiology Lab 1   50:120:341
344 Neurobiology I: cell & molecular  3 50:120:101,102  
345 Neurobiology II: systems & behavior 3 50:120:283,344  
345 Human Neurobiology 3    
346 Animal Physiology 3 50:120:341  
347 Animal Physiology Lab 1   50:120:346
348 Human Physiology 3 50:120:341  
349 Human Physiology Lab 1   50:120:348
351 General Ecology 3 50:120:283; 50:640:121  
353 General Ecology Lab 1   50:120:351
354 Applied Ecology 3 50:120:351  
355 Applied Ecology Lab 1   50:120:354
359 Development and Evolution 3 50:120:283  
360 Developmental Botany  3 50:120:101,102  
361 Developmental Botany Lab 1   50:120,360
362 Comparative Morphology of Plants 3 50:120:101,102,283  
363 Plant Ecology 3 50:120:101,102,351  
366 Plant Physiology 3 50:120:101,102, 341; 50:160:335  
367 Plant Physiology Lab 1   50:120:366
368 Comparative Morphology of Plants Lab 1   50:120:362
369 Plant Ecology Lab 1   50:120:363
370 Introduction to Virology 3 50:120:283,330  
371 Evolution Morphology 3 50:120:283  
372 Evolution Morphology Lab 1   50:120:371
374 Vertebrate Embryology 3 50:120:283; 50:160:335  
375 Vertebrate Embryology Lab 1   50:120:374
376 Animal Histology 3 50:120:283  
377 Animal Histology Lab 1   50:120:376
378 Invertebrate Zoology 3 50:120:283  
379 Animal Behavior 3 50:120:283  
380 Vertebrate Zoology 3 50:120:283  
381 Vertebrate Zoology Lab 1   50:120:380
385 Weird Biology 3 50:120:283  
387 Circadian Rhythms 3 50:120:101,102, 283 and 330 or 307  
388 Invertebrate Zoology Lab 1   50:120:378
389 Circadian Rhythms Lab 1   50:120:387
390 Principles and Practices of Biological Research 3 50:120:283  
391 Principles and Practices of Biological Research Lab 1   50:120:390
392 Communicating Biomedical Science 3 50:120:283  
393 Special Topics Biology 3+ 50:120:283  
394 Special Topics Biology: Community Ecology 3+ 50:120:351 (General Ecology) and (50:120:283 (Statistics for Biological Research)  
395 Special Topics Biology 3+ 50:120:283  
396 Special Topics Biology 3+ 50:120:283  
398 Internship Biology 3+ 50:120:199, 283  
399 Current Topics in Biology 3 50:120:283  
401 Microtechnique and Its Applications 3    
402 Mycology 3 50:120:283  
403 Mycology Lab 1   50:120:402
410 Electron Microscopy 2 50:120:283  
422 Ecology of Soil Organisms 3 50:120:351  
423 Ecology of Soil Organisms Lab 1   50:120:422
444 Molecular Diagnostics 3 50:120:307 50:120:305
450 Tropical Field Ecology 4 50:120:283,351  
460 Medical, Industrial, and Enviromental Mycology 3 50:120:283,351  
471 Forensic Serology 3 50:120:283  
473 Forensic Serology Lab 1   50:120:471
480 Recombinant DNA Technology 3 50:120:305  
491 Independent Research in Biology 3+ 50:120:283, 390  
492 Independent Research in Biology 3+ 50:120: 491 50:120: 494
494 Seminar in Biology 1 50:120:283  
495 Biology Honors Thesis I 3+ 50:120:283, 491  
496 Biology Honors Thesis II 3+ 50:120:495  
497 Co-op in Biology  3-12 50:120:199, 283  


50:120:101 General Biology I (R) (3)
Principles of biology, including the cellular basis of life, genetics, and evolution.

50:120:102 General Biology II (R) (3)
Principles of biology, including the morphology, physiology, and development of plants and animals, including man. Required laboratory includes techniques such as microscopy, dissection, physiological experimentation, and use of the scientific method.

50:120:103 Biology of Cancer (3)
Discussion of the basic mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and its prevention and treatment. Topics include the cellular basis of cancer, regulation of cellular reproduction, cancer as a hereditary disease, induction of cancer, occupational cancer, consumer products and cancer, and prevention and treatment of cancer. Satisfies the college’s natural sciences requirement for non-science majors. Although open to biology and biomedical technology majors, does not satisfy the biology major elective requirement.

50:120:105 The Facts of Life (3)
Introduction (without laboratory) to biological principles. Covers basic concepts involved in understanding the structure, function, and evolution of organisms with an emphasis placed on the application of biological knowledge to problems of man and society. Topics include human nutrition, disease, reproduction and development, genetic engineering, pollution, and conservation. Not open to biology or biomedical technology majors. Satisfies the college’s natural sciences requirement for non-science majors.

50:120:106 Human Reproduction and Development (3)
Topics include the formation of germ cells, chromosomes and sex, anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system, hormonal control of reproduction, infertility, growth and development, genetic counseling, birth defects, and sexually transmitted diseases. Not normally open to biology or biomedical technology majors. Satisfies the college’s natural sciences requirement for non-science majors.

50:120:107 General Biology I Laboratory (R) (1)
Laboratory includes techniques such as microscopy, dissection, physiological experimentation, and use of the scientific method. 

50:120:108 General Biology II Laboratory (R) (1)
Laboratory includes techniques such as microscopy, dissection, physiological experimentation, and use of the scientific method. 

50:120:110 Biology of Disease (3)
Scientific overview of the major human diseases of current interest. Not normally open to biology or biomedical technology majors. Satisfies the college’s natural sciences requirement for non-science majors.

50:120:153 Essentials of Anatomy &Physiology I Lecture 
First part of a two-semester, introductory level course with corequisite lab that studies the anatomy and vital functions of the healthy human body. The course focuses on the fundamentals and assumes no prior science knowledge. Core themes are distilled into key concepts and the underlying mechanisms that maintain homeostasis. Following an introduction to body organization and basic cell function, the course examines the gross anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, skeleton, muscular, and digestive systems. Designed for Nursing majors. This course will not satisfy the Biology major elective requirement. Lab is required. Corequisite lab: 50:120:155 is required.

50:120:154 Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology II Lecture
Second part of a two-semester, 4-credit introductory level course with corequisite lab that studies the core themes in anatomy and physiology of the healthy human body. This course completes the examination of fundamental concepts and basic physiological mechanisms of homeostasis for the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems. Designed for Nursing majors. This course will not satisfy the Biology major elective requirement. Corequisite lab is required. Prerequisites: 50:120: 153/155 Corequisite lab: 50:120:156

50:120:155 Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology I Lab
Corequisite laboratory for 120:153 includes basic physiological experimentation, gross anatomy studies including anatomical models and animal dissection, microscopy, and computer simulations of corresponding topics in lecture. 3 hrs. Corequisite: 50:120:153

50:120:156 Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology II Lab
Corequisite laboratory for 120:154: includes physiological experimentation, gross anatomy studies including anatomical models and animal dissection, microscopy, and computer simulations of corresponding topics in lecture. 3 hrs. Corequisite: 50:120:154

50:120:199 Exploring Careers in Biology  (1)
The purpose of this course is for students to identify or confirm their career goals in biological sciences through service learning at diverse work places. This course is not required for BS in Biology. However, this course is a prerequisite for the career development courses, Internship in Biology (398), Co-Op in Biology (498).

50:120:201 Basic Botany (3)
An introduction to the members of the plant kingdom with emphasis on their structure and function, growth and development, worldwide distribution, ecology, and economic importance. Additional topics include plant biotechnology, herbs and spices, and the origins of agriculture. Not open to biology majors.

50:120:202 Understanding Environmental Problems (3)
Discussion and analysis of environmental problems facing the human species. Emphasis on physical and biological principles affecting population growth; resource and energy consumption; and the pollution of the air, water, and land. Alternative solutions to environmental problems discussed in terms of conflicting economic and political values. Satisfies the college’s natural sciences requirement for non-science majors. Although open to biology majors, does not satisfy the biology major elective requirement.

50:120:211 Microbiology and Its Application (3)
Structure and characteristics of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, with special emphasis on forms pathogenic for humans. Metabolism and genetics of microorganisms and principles of immunology; host-microbe interactions; pathogenesis of bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and their medication. Designed primarily for students in the nursing and health sciences program, it will not satisfy the biology.

50:120:222 Computers in Biology (3)
Use of the computer in biological investigation, experimentation, and the analysis of data to include sequence searching and analysis, structure determination and display, spreadsheet use, data acquisition, and image analysis. 

50:120:231 Clinical Aspects of Human Genetics (3)
Principles of human heredity as applicable to nursing and allied health fields. Topics include patterns of inheritance, genetic aspects of health and disease, common genetic disorders and birth defects, genetic testing, genetic counseling, gene therapy, pedigree analysis, and genomics. Case studies will be discussed extensively. 

50:120:253,254, 255, 256 Basic Anatomy & Physiology with Lab  (8-credits)
Two-semester study of the anatomy and vital functions of the human body. Following an introduction to body organization and basic cell function, the course examines the histology, gross anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, skeleton, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems including immunity and electrolytes. Corresponding laboratory is required. 
Designed for Nursing and other Health Science majors only. This course will not satisfies the Biology major elective requirement. 

50:120:283 Statistics for Biological Research (3) Introduction to basic concepts in statistics including descriptive (skew, kurtosis, etc.) and quantitative (hypothesis testing, parametric tests, nonparametric tests, etc.) approaches with emphasis on application to biological sciences and experimental design.

50:120:300,301,302,303 Advanced Anatomy & Physiology (8-credits)
This course is a two-semester, comprehensive study of the form and vital functions of the human body in its healthy state.  In-depth examination of gross and microscopic anatomy and the physiological processes that maintain homeostasis at all levels of complexity from molecules to organ systems.  Corequisite laboratories includes physiological experimentation, gross anatomy, dissection, microscopy, and computer simulations. Corresponding laboratory is required.  Designed for Biology and other science majors. Biology Majors must take Advanced A&P I & II to receive elective credits.

50:120:305 Molecular Biology (3)
Molecular mechanisms involved in the expression of genetic information; the control of macromolecular synthesis; the aggregation of macromolecules into DNA-protein complexes, membranes, chromosomes, and cell organelles; and an introduction to recombinant DNA technology. 

50:120:306 Molecular Biology Laboratory (1)
Introduction to protein purification techniques, gene cloning, and recombinant DNA technology.

50:120:307 Genetics (3)
Principles and mechanisms of classical inheritance, organization, expression, regulation of hereditary elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Systems-level approach to genetics, with an emphasis on developmental genetics. Prerequisites: 50:120:101,102 and two semesters of organic chemistry, or permission of instructor.

50:120:308 Genetics Laboratory (1)
Applications of genetics principles reviewed through demonstrations, problem solving, and research. 

50:120:310 Evolution (3)
A study of the principles and mechanisms of organic evolution; the history of evolutionary theory, the origin of life, and the role of the genetic systems, variation, and natural selection in species formation; molecular evolution. 

50:120:311 Human Genetics (3)
Principles of human heredity. Topics include genetic aspects of health and disease, birth defects, metabolic disorders, modes of inheritance, molecular and biochemical analyses, genomics, and proteomics. Case studies will be discussed.

50:120:328 Forensic Methods and Techniques (3)
Students will be introduced to a range of forensic techniques that cut across all the life and physical sciences.  Each session will cover the basic science underlying each technique as well as its practical application during a criminal investigation.  A lab module accompanies this course to provide an opportunity for hands-on work.

50:120:329 Forensic Methods and Techniques Lab (1)
Students will perform a range of forensic examinations and analyses in a laboratory setting. Methods are derived from the chemical and biological sciences.

50:120:330 General Microbiology (3)
Structure and characteristics of prokaryotes, eukaryotic microorganisms, and viruses and their metabolism, genetics, ecology, and use in biotechnological applications. Also includes aspects of immunology and the pathogenesis of bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases. 

50:120:331 General Microbiology Laboratory (1)
Basic microbiological techniques for isolating, examining, and identifying bacteria, fungi, and viruses; experimental investigation of their characteristics.

50:120:333 Advanced Microbiology (3)
Deals with a more in-depth presentation of selected topics surveyed in 50:120:330 General Microbiology. Topics include aspects of virology; bacterial physiology; plasmids and genetic engineering; and pathogenesis of bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases. 

50:120:334 Cell Biology (3)
Structural analysis and functional correlations of cytoplasmic and nuclear components of plant, animal, and microbial cells; analysis of mitosis and meiosis; analysis of developmental mechanisms at the cellular level. Introduction to techniques and tools of biochemistry, cytology, and tissue culture. 

50:120:335 Cell Biology Laboratory (1)
Introduction to techniques and tools of biochemistry, cytology, and tissue culture. 

50:120:338 Immunology and Serology (3)
Nature of antigens and antibodies and their relationship to humoral and cellular immunity. Discussion of laboratory procedures for the study of antigen-antibody reactions and their use for diagnostic and analytical purposes. 

50:120:339 Immunology and Serology Laboratory (1)
Practice with the representative basic procedures used in immunization and the laboratory study of antigen-antibody reactions. 

50:120:341 General Physiology (3)
A study of the functions of living things with emphasis on the chemical and physical properties of protoplasm, the conversion of energy and matter through cell respiration and synthesis, the transport of materials across membranes, cell excitability and contraction, and regulatory processes. 

50:120:342 General Physiology Laboratory (1)
Experimental investigation of various functions of cells by isolation and characterization of subcellular parts and examination of cellular processes such as membrane transport and cell excitability. 

50:120:344 Neurobiology I: cell & molecular (3)
Introduction to the biology of the nervous system. The first section examines electrical signaling of the brain; the second section examines chemical signaling of the brain; the third section examines basic neuroanatomy, sensory, and motor systems. 

50:120:345 Neurobiology II: systems & behavior (3)
A continuation of 50:120:344 Neurobiology I. Topics covered in this course will include a closer examination of neuroanatomy, network analysis, the physiology of neuronal subsystems, organismic behavior, the neurobiology of human disease, and the relationship between the brain and mind. While most of the course will focus on vertebrates, some invertebrate systems will also be examined. 

50:120:346 Animal Physiology (3)
A comparative study of physiological systems; nutrition, circulation, and respiration; osmoregulation and excretion; nervous and endocrine coordination. 

50:120:347 Pathophysiology (3)
An introduction to the physiological basis of disease in humans. Topics covered include inflammation, wound healing, immune responses, neoplasia, and metabolic disorders.

50:120:351 General Ecology (3)
A study of the interrelations of organisms and their environments. Principles of organismal physiology (energetics and metabolism, thermoregulation, nutrition, behaviour), population dynamics (models of population growth, regulation), patterns of diversity and underlying mechanisms, ecological niche, species interactions, in ecological communities, energy flux and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, paleoecology

50:120:353 General Ecology Laboratory (1)
Field and laboratory exercises illustrating concepts of general ecology. 

50:120:360 Developmental Botany (3)
A study of the hormonal, physiological, and environmental control mechanisms underlying morphological changes in the life cycles of angiosperms. Topics include embryogenesis, seed dormancy and germination, seedling growth, flowering, fruiting, and senescence.

50:120:362 Comparative Morphology of Plants (3)
An evolutionary survey of the plant kingdom: development, adaptations for survival, and representative types and life cycles from the simplest to the most advanced groups. Formerly 50:130:307. Lecture 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs (50:120:368). 

50:120:363 Plant Ecology (3)
A study of plants in relation to their environment with emphasis on field studies of plant communities in New Jersey.  

50:120:366 Plant Physiology (3)
The course includes various aspects of the plant way of life with special emphasis on plant structure, biochemistry and metabolism, water and solute transport, and plant growth and development. Previous coursework in plant science such as Developmental Botany (50:130:310) is beneficial but not required. Undergraduate students who want to use this course to complete their physiology core requirement have to take the laboratory course 50:120:367 concurrently. 

50:120:367 Plant Physiology Laboratory (1)
The laboratory in plant physiology is a supplement to 50:120:366 and is required for undergraduate students who want to complete their physiology core requirement with the course in plant physiology. In the laboratory course, basic concepts of plant physiology will be demonstrated, and the students will learn laboratory techniques, data analysis, and the interpretation of data of their plant physiological experiments. 

50:120:371 Evolutionary Morphology (3)
A comparative anatomical and physiological study of representative chordates with emphasis on nonhuman vertebrates. 

50:120:374 Vertebrate Embryology (3)
Introductory course that emphasizes cellular and molecular aspects of development. Both vertebrates and invertebrates considered. Lecture 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 50:120:283 and one semester of organic chemistry, or permission of instructor.

50:120:376 Animal Histology (3)
Covers the basic structure and function of animal tissues and the organs derived from them. 

50:120:376 Animal Histology Lab (1)

50:120:378 Invertebrate Zoology (3)
A guided tour of protists and animals without backbones comprising 95 percent of the animal kingdom. Emphasis placed on evolutionary and ecological relationships that make an understanding and appreciation of this diverse group of animals possible. 

50:120:379 Animal Behavior (3)
Focuses on the neural, hormonal, and genetic mechanisms and evolution of behaviors involved with species survival, including issues of foraging, defense, mating, and societies. 

50:120:380 Vertebrate Zoology (3)
A study of the vertebrates with regard to their systematics, ecology, and behavior. Emphasizes field studies of freshwater and terrestrial vertebrates, and identification of New Jersey’s terrestrial vertebrate species, through laboratory examination of specimens and field labs exploring New Jersey habitats. 

50:120:381 Vertebrate Zoology Lab (1)

50:120:385 Weird Biology (3)
Core courses present foundation material to investigate the basis of a discipline. This elective course focuses on ignored topics of biological study that require substantive and cognitive investigation to understand. Students will read and interpret science from the popular press and from research literature. Sample topics include discussions of the number of Loch Ness monsters living in Loch Ness (ecology), the brain representation (homunculus) of an intact body in a person born without arms and legs (neurology), responses of bamboo-dwelling ants to rainfall (behavior), and the appreciation of music in animals (behavior, psychology, neurology). 

50:120:387 Circadian Rhythms (3)
This course will explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which organisms “keep time”. The course will cover fundamental properties of biological rhythms and cellular and molecular structure of circadian oscillators in many organisms including cyanobacteria, fungi, insects, plants, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

50:120:388 Invertebrate Zoology Lab (1)

50:120:389 Circadian Rhythms Lab (1)
This lab course will teach students on how to empirically study the cellular clock by using either a model organism or a species of interest to students.

50:120:390 Principles and Practices of Biological Research (3)
This course will teach students basic skills in performing biological research; asking a good research question, formulating hypotheses, designing experiments to test a hypothesis, generating experimental data for hypothesis testing, performing simple statistical tests on experimental data using computational programs, presenting experimental data, writing a scientific article.

50:120:391 Principles and Practices of Biological Research Lab (1)

50:120:394 Community Ecology (3)
Prerequisites are courses in Ecology and Statistics or equivalent. This is an advanced course focused on the theoretical background of community ecology. In this course we will examine the various mechanisms structuring ecological communities across spatiotemporal scales with particular emphasis on the main theories, historical development of the field, and the experimental and quantitative support. The course will consist of regular lectures, a large number of readings from the primary literature, paper discussions in class, and student presentations. Topics include simple two-species interactions (e.g., predation, competition, mutualism), multispecies interactions, ecological networks and food web structure, regulation of species diversity on ecological and evolutionary time scales, and macroecology. By the end of the course the student will have a broad appreciation of current topics and demonstrable understanding of community ecology theory, mathematical models, big questions, findings, and challenges.

50:120:398 Internship in Biology (3 minimum)
The Internship Program is an educational experience that gives students the opportunity to apply classroom learning to the workplace, expand professional skills and earn academic credit. Internships can help students to choose a major, plan for graduate study and find a job by giving them first hand experience in a particular field of interest.

50:120:399 Current Topics in Biology (3)
An interactive, seminar-based forum in which students select a topic of their interest and present a seminar to the biology department on a primary literature article related to their chosen topic. This will be accompanied by a written report of the topic that will be peer reviewed before its final submission. Additionally, each student will select a peer’s topic and serve as a commentator of both an oral presentation and written report. Topics can include any aspect of biology but are subject to the instructor’s approval. Finally, a comprehensive written exam encompassing the major concepts of biology will be administered as a required part of the course. Designed to be taken in final year of biology major.

50:120:401 Microtechnique and its Applications (3)
Covers topics on the theory and methods of fixation, sectioning, and staining, including techniques in histochemistry. Among others, the following procedures are taught: paraffin, plastic, and frozen sectioning; standard staining methods (e.g., hematoxylin and eosin), as well as special methods for identifying carbohydrates, enzymes, lipids, and other cell tissue components. 

50:120:410 Electron Microscopy (2)
Use of the transmission electron microscope and ultramicrotome. Preparation of samples and examination of thin sections of tissues, negative stained materials, and replicas of cells. Immunolabeling and cytochemistry of cells. 

50:120:422 Ecology of Soil Organisms (3)
Explores the basic principles of ecology from the viewpoint of soil organisms. The role of soil organisms is essential to the sustainability of ecosystems. 

50:120:423 Ecology of Soil Organisms Lab (1)

50:120:444 Molecular Diagnostics (3)
Comprehensive introduction to the rapidly growing field of molecular diagnostics. Topics include modern molecular biological applications in infectious disease, genetics testing, cancer diagnosis and metastasis, forensic science, and personalized medicine. The many different nucleic acid and protein test methods that are being integrated into clinical laboratory science will be discussed. 

50:120:460 Medical, Industrial, and Environmental Mycology (3)
Fungi are integral in many ecological processes. They act as decomposers not only of dead plant and animal matter, but are active pathogens of plants and animals, including humans. Since fungi are evolutionarily close to animals, it it often difficult to target fungi with antibiotics which do not also harm their human host. Antibiotic production is a natural defense mechanism of fungi, which has been exploited by humans. Fungi or the by-products of fungal activity are used in the food industry. They are of huge economic importance in food spoilage and crop reduction. Fungi can be important agents in controlling pollutants in industrial process and pollutant spills. 

50:120:471 Forensic Serology (3)
This course addresses the theory and practice of forensic serology. Students will learn the presumptive and confirmatory testing methods used to determine the type and source of biological stains along with new technologies under development. 

50:120:473 Forensic Serology Lab  (1)
This lab section provides practical training in forensic serological techniques. 

50:120:480 Recombinant DNA Technology (3)
Examination of the recombinant DNA technology and its utility in specific medical and industrial applications as well as its use in basic research. Topics include discussion of in vitro mutagenesis, heterologous and gene expression in a variety of hosts, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies using genetic engineering, as well as the ecological/social impacts of recombinant DNA technology. 

50:120:491,492 Independent Research in Biology (minimum 3)
Designed to meet the needs of outstanding students who have demonstrated an aptitude for original work and may wish to undertake special problems. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. No more than 8 credits can be counted toward the biology major.

50:120:494 Seminar in Biology (1)
Members of the seminar prepare and present reports on recent research findings. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.